Understanding Bitcoin mining

Odds are you listen to the term”bitcoin mining” and your brain starts to wander into the Western dream of pickaxes, dirt and striking it rich. As it happens, that analogy is not too much off.

Far less glamorous but equally unsure, bitcoin mining is done by high-definition computers that solve complicated computational science issues (in other words, so complicated they can’t be solved manually, and really complicated enough to taxation even exceptionally strong computers). The luck and operate demanded by a computer to solve these issues is the equal of a miner spectacular gold from the floor — while digging at a sandbox. In the time of writing, the opportunity of a computer solving these issues is around 1 in 13 trillion, but more about this later.

The consequence of”bitcoin mining” is twofold. To begin with, when computers resolve these intricate mathematics issues on the Bitcoin system, they create fresh bitcoin (when speaking about the person coins ,”bitcoin” generally seems without capitalization), not as when a mining operation extracts gold in the earth. And secondly, by resolving computational math issues, bitcoin miners create the Bitcoin payment system secure and dependable, by confirming its trade info.

There is a fantastic chance all that just made so much sense. To be able to clarify how bitcoin mining functions in detail, let us start with a procedure that’s a bit closer to home: the regulation of published money.

Consumers have a tendency to trust published monies, at least in the United States. That is because the U.S. dollar is backed with a central bank known as the Federal Reserve. Besides a host of additional obligations, the Federal Reserve governs the creation of new cash, and the national government prosecutes the usage of counterfeit money.

Even electronic payments utilizing the U.S. buck are backed with a central authority. Whenever you make an internet purchase with your debit or charge card, by way of instance, that trade is processed by means of a payment processing firm like Mastercard or Visa. Along with recording your trade history, these businesses verify that transactions aren’t deceptive, which is 1 reason that your credit or debit card could be frozen while traveling.

Bitcoin, on the other hand, isn’t controlled by a central authority. Rather, Bitcoin is endorsed by tens of thousands of computers throughout the world referred to as”nodes.” This system of computers plays the identical function as the Federal Reserve, Visa and Mastercard, but using a couple of important differences. Nodes store information regarding prior transactions and aid to confirm their authenticity. Unlike many fundamental governments, nevertheless, Bitcoin nodes are distributed throughout the globe and record trade information in a public record which may be retrieved by anybody, you.

Whenever someone makes a purchase or purchase utilizing bitcoin, we predict a”transaction.” Transactions made online and in-store are recorded by banks, point-of-sale systems, and bodily receipts. Bitcoin miners achieve the exact same effect without those institutions by clumping trades together in”blocks” and adding them into a public document known as the”blockchain.” Nodes then keep records of these blocks so they may be verified to the near future.

When bitcoin miners put in a fresh block of trades to the blockchain, a part of the job is to ensure that those trades are true. (More on the magic of the way this occurs in another.) Specifically, bitcoin miners be certain bitcoin isn’t being replicated, a special quirk of electronic currencies known as”double-spending. ” With published monies, copying cash is not a problem. When you invest $20 at the shop, that invoice is at the clerk’s hands. With electronic money, however, it is another story.

Digital information can be replicated relatively easily, so with Bitcoin along with other electronic currencies, there’s a threat that a spender may produce a replica of the bitcoin and send it to the next party whilst still holding on the first. Let us return to published money for some time and say somebody attempted to replicate their 20 bill so as to spend the initial and the fake at a grocery shop. If a clerk understood that clients were copying cash, all they’d need to do is look at the invoices’ serial numbers.

The amount of new bitcoin released with each mined block is called the”block reward”

Second, in order to add a block of transactions to the blockchain, miners must solve a complex computational math problem, also called a”proof of labour “

Nonetheless, mining for bitcoin requires massive amounts of energy and sophisticated computing rigs, but more about that later as well.

The difficulty level is adjusted every 2016 blocks, or roughly every 2 weeks, with the goal of keeping rates of mining constant. That is, the more miners there are competing for a solution, the more difficult the problem will become. The opposite is also true. If computational power is taken off of the network, the difficulty adjusts downward to make mining easier.

Explain it Like I’m Five (ELI5)
Here’s a helpful analogy to consider:

“Say I tell three friends I’m considering a number between 1 and 100, and I write that amount on a sheet of paper and then seal it in an envelope. My friends do not need to guess the specific number, they simply must be the very first person to guess some quantity that’s less than or equal to this amount I am considering. And there’s absolutely no limitation to the amount of guesses that they get.

“Let’s say I’m thinking of the number 19. If Friend A guesses 21, they lose because 21>19. If Friend B guesses 16 and Friend C guesses 12, then they’ve both theoretically arrived at viable answers, because 16<19 and 12<19. There is no ‘extra credit’ for Friend B, even though B’s answer was closer to the target answer of 19.

“Now imagine I present the’guess what number I’m thinking of’ query, however I’m not asking only 3 buddies, and I’m not considering a number between 1 and 100. Instead, I’m requesting countless prospective miners and I’m considering a 64-digit hexadecimal number. Now you see that it is going to be quite difficult to guess the ideal answer.”

How Can You Compete with Millions of Miners?
If 1 in 13 trillion doesn’t sound difficult enough as is, here’s the catch to the catch. Not only do bitcoin miners have to come up with the right hash, but they also have to be the first to do it.

Because bitcoin mining is essentially guesswork, arriving at the right answer before another miner has almost everything to do with how fast your computer can produce hashes. Just a decade ago, bitcoin mining could be performed competitively on normal desktop computers. Over time, however, miners realized that graphics cards commonly used for video games were more effective at mining than desktops and graphics processing units (GPU) came to dominate the game. In 2013, bitcoin miners began to use computers designed specifically for mining cryptocurrency as efficiently as possible, called Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). These can run from several hundred dollars to tens of thousands. On the other hand, given that the current price of bitcoin as of this writing is roughly $9,330, and that the reward for completing a block is 12.5 coins, or close to $117,000, an upfront investment in an expensive ASIC may ultimately be worthwhile.

Today, bitcoin mining is so competitive that it can only be done profitably with the most up-to-date ASICs. When using desktop computers, GPUs, or older models of ASICs, the cost of energy consumption actually exceeds the revenue generated. Even with the newest unit at your disposal, one computer is rarely enough to compete with what miners call”mining pools”

A mining pool is a group of miners who combine their computing power and split the mined bitcoin between participants. A disproportionately large number of blocks are mined by pools rather than by individual miners. At some points in bitcoin’s history, mining pools and companies have represented roughly 80% to 90% of bitcoin computing power.

Is Bitcoin Mining Sustainable?
Between 1 in 13 trillion odds, scaling difficulty levels, and the massive network of users verifying transactions, one block of transactions is verified roughly every 10 minutes. But it’s important to remember that 10 minutes is a goal, not a rule.

The bitcoin network can process about seven transactions per second, with transactions being logged in the blockchain every 10 minutes. For comparison, Visa can process somewhere around 24,000 transactions per second. As the network of bitcoin users continues to grow, however, the number of transactions made in 10 minutes will eventually exceed the number of transactions that can be processed in 10 minutes. At that point, waiting times for transactions will begin and continue to get longer, unless a change is made to the bitcoin protocol.

This issue at the heart of the bitcoin protocol is known as”scaling” While bitcoin miners generally agree that something must be done to address scaling, there is less consensus about how to do it. There have been two major solutions proposed to address the scaling problem. Developers have suggested either (1) decreasing the amount of data needed to verify each block or (2) increasing the number of transactions that each block can store. With less data to verify per block, the Solution 1 would make transactions faster and cheaper for miners. Solution 2 would deal with scaling by allowing for more information to be processed every 10 minutes by increasing block size.

In July 2017, bitcoin miners and mining companies representing roughly 80% to 90% of the network’s computing power voted to incorporate a program that would decrease the amount of data needed to verify each block. That is, they went with Solution 1.

The program that miners voted to add to the bitcoin protocol is called a segregated witness, or SegWit. This term is an amalgamation of Segregated, meaning “to separate,” and Witness, which refers to “signatures on a bitcoin transaction.” Segregated Witness, then, means to separate transaction signatures from a block — and attach them as an extended block. While adding a single program to the bitcoin protocol may not seem like much in the way of a solution, signature data has been estimated to account for up to 65% of the data processed in each block of transactions.

Less than a month later in August 2017, a group of miners and developers initiated a hard fork, leaving the bitcoin network to create a new currency using the same codebase as bitcoin. Although this group agreed with the need for a solution to scaling, they worried that adopting segregated witness technology would not fully address the scaling problem.

Instead, they went with Solution 2. The resulting currency, called”bitcoin money,” improved the blocksize to 8 MB so as to accelerate the confirmation procedure to permit a performance of approximately 2 million trades every day. On November 6, 2019, Bitcoin Cash was valued at roughly $302 to Bitcoin’s approximately $9,330.